The name of the monastery comes from the Greek word Stauropolis, that means “City Of The Cross”.
The church, a building in the Brâncoveanu architectural style, was built in 1724 by the Greek archimandrite Ioanichie Stratonikeas in the courtyard of his inn. The inn was built twenty years earlier, around 1704. It was demolished in the late 19th century, together with the near Stavropoleos Monastery.
Next to the church is a building from the early 20th century, which was built according to the plans of the Romanian architect Ion Mincu. The building houses an old library, a conference hall and a collection of religious objects, among others old icons and parts of the frescoes of churches that were destroyed during the socialism.
In 2008, the Stavropoleos monastery was re-opened as a nunnery. The church was consecrated in 2012 as a monastery church by the Romanian Patriarch Daniel.